Most environmental problems are cross-border and often global and can only be effectively addressed through international cooperation. That is why the Lisbon Treaty stipulates that one of the main objectives of the EU`s environmental policy is to promote action at the international level to address regional or global environmental problems, and in particular to combat climate change. The EU is actively involved in the development, ratification and implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. An important indicator of progress in stabilizing emissions is the level of increase in emissions from each country from year to year – their incremental emissions. It is clear that the greatest impact on climate stabilization will be that the largest incremental emitters stabilize their emissions. But the more we go into the decade of the 1990s without stabilization, the more difficult it will be to achieve the internationally recognized voluntary goal (The World Bank, 1995). The World Bank calculated incremental emissions for 1986-91 by adapting a linear trend to CDIAC emissions data. Where the trend was insignificant, the increment was zeroed. This process has been repeated for both individual national data and total global emissions. Population dynamics and distribution are indicators of understanding human interactions with the environment and studying possible responses to global climate change.
The National Research Council (NRC) has identified demographic dynamics as one of the five priority areas of research for the U.S. climate change research program. He also highlighted the key role of geo-referenced social data in two other priority areas, improving understanding of land use changes and assessing the effects, vulnerability and adaptation to global change (National Research Council, 1994). The Kyoto Protocol can be defined as the implementation of the UNFCCC. At the time, it was the first global commitment to govern emissions responsible for global warming and laid the groundwork for subsequent international agreements on climate change. Although the protocol was signed on March 16, 1998, it did not come into force until February 16, 2005. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of the actions undertaken There is a framework of transparency that will not be intrusive or penalizing, but which must be used to build trust between the various actors.